For durations of time in hours, however, you can never drop the kan. Then applied to other kanji of the same pronunciation, namely 締め, 閉め, 絞め, and 搾め, all pronounced しめ shime. 半(はん han) means half, as in half past the hour. Otherwise, assume that the normal number and unchanged counter are used. Sense of “closed, fastened” is due to 閉める (shimeru, “to close”) and 締める (shimeru, “to fasten”). Don't know numbers or how to count? As in English, the minutes simply follow the hours when telling time. There is also occasional use of 乄, as in 乄高. The same rule applies for larger numbers. Maybe you feel a little bit confused, let me explain further. Focus your attention on whether you should yon/shi, nana/shichi, and kyuu/ku, and if there are any irregular pronunciations of the number + counter combo. When used with other counters, such as 年 (nen) for years, han becomes equivalent to half a unit of that counter. The counters you will learn in this lesson as well as their question word forms are normally written in Kanji, and will be introduced in those forms so that you’ll be able to recognize them. The suffix -ji can be considered a counter, and as with any counter, it is always used with a particular pronunciation of the numbers that have several. The corresponding suffix for minutes in Japanese is ~分, pronounced fun or pun. To distinguish between A.M. and P.M. use the terms gozen and gogo. As in English, you can safely omit the gozen/gogo if there’s no chance of ambiguity. It is also sometimes used for 閉め, notably in sense of “closed envelope”. Early forms were first used in Japan as early as A.D. 800 and evolved slowly into the modern era, along with hiragana and katakana. Anything I've missed? To tell the time is quite easy. You can say that something is from time X to time Y in Japanese using what you already know. Time in hours is frequently written using both the Kanji and the Arabic numerals. From 占める (shimeru), as cursive form of top component ト (also 〆). At first you say the hours, then the minutes. I’ve broken them up into categories, such as numbers, time, people and places, because I’ve found that kanji are easiest to learn when I associate them with related words. Hours of the day are signified with the suffix ~時 (ji), meaning “hour”. That’s all there is to it. Finally, note that in Japan as well as many other countries, the 24 hour clock (“military time”) is used much more frequently than in North America. This counter is completely regular, using the normal yon, nana, and kyuu. I don’t specialize in this area, so if you find any mistakes, please feel free to ask me to correct them. So while go + fun is unchanged, combining juu + fun causes: juu -> jup fun -> pun Now that you know how to use the numbers, you’re ready to tell time. Chinese characters, also called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: Hànzì; lit. 1. In case you were wondering, the Japanese word for “seconds” is 秒 (byou). 〆 is primarily used as an abbreviation for 締め, most commonly in 〆切, as an abbreviation for 締切 (shimekiri, “deadline; locked (door)”), also 締める (〆る) and 締高 (〆高). Although this is fine for now, in case you’d like to know the other numbers, here they are: For larger numbers, only the component directly before the counter affects the pronunciation – the one’s place or juu. 乄 (radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大山 (KU) or XX大山 (XXKU), composition ⿻㇢丶). This is a common occurrence – not only does the form of the number vary, but also the form of the counter. The pronunciations of the numbers preceding –jikan follow the same rules as with -ji. All questions, comments, and corrections are welcome.

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