1772. In the 1440s the Portuguese started to procure and transport Africans to the Iberian Peninsula. Revolt by the slaves in the French Caribbean colony of St Domingue. Merchants in the ports of Bristol and Liverpool talked euphemistically of the Triangular Trade, referring to the circular flow of manufactures, persons and cash crops which dominated the commercial life of the north Atlantic. Progress was slow, however, and it was only two years later that Wilberforce was able to introduce a bill to abolish the trade – and in the event the bill was easily defeated by 163 votes to 88. By 1843 these conditions were lifted. This was the first meeting of the two men, and the start of collaboration between them which lasted more than fifty years. George Fox encountered slavery on his visit to Barbados in 1671. By 1807, with slavery garnering great public attention as well as in the courts, Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act. Subsequently, at a dinner on March 13 1787, Wilberforce indicated he was willing to lead the abolitionist cause in parliament. The case had gained a great deal of attention amongst the public, so much so that by 1783 a strong anti-slavery movement was being formed. 1820s – 1850s. King allowed Equiano to purchase his freedom in 1766 and the following year Equiano travelled to England and eventually became active in the anti-slave movement. 1727. The impact of this new European social conscience and self-awareness also impacted enslaved communities who had always put up resistance but now felt emboldened to claim their rights. This article follows on from the one on Early Quaker History, and deals with Quakerism in Britain and Ireland after 1658.The Quakers had emerged as an organised movement between 1652 and 1654. He argued with other Quakers that slave ownership was incompatible with Christian doctrine. James Somerset, who had been brought from Jamaica to Britain, ran away. Henry Stubbs and his sons helped runaway slaves get across Indiana. What is written may or may not reflect the official view of the Religious Society of Friends. With their initiative and organisational abilities, along with the Quakers’ extensive contacts across the country, they were able to ensure the Society became a highly effective campaigning body. 1810s – 1840s. However, slavery continued to exist in the British Empire. For example, the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, first founded in 1775, consisted primarily of Quakers; seven of the ten original white members were Quakers and 17 of the 24 who attended the four meetings held by the Society were Quakers. According to the historian Hugh Thomas, the intervention by Wesley was the most serious onslaught on slavery that had yet been made. Joseph Woods (1738-1812): a woollen merchant and brother-in-law of George Harrison, who had written a pamphlet in 1784 on “Thoughts on the Slavery of Negroes.” Woods agreed with the basic strategic decision to focus initially on the abolition of the slave trade, rather than on the institution of slavery. On 13th March 1787 during a dinner involving several important figures amongst the Clapham Sect community, Wilberforce agreed to bring the issue to parliament. With lucrative gains to be made, trafficking between Caribbean Islands would persist for several years. Bearing the image of a kneeling slave with the inscription ‘Am I not a man and a brother?’ the medallions circulated widely and some individuals even treated them as a kind of fashion item. [Portrait] According to Mike Kaye: “Equiano’s book fundamentally challenged the lies promoted by the pro-slavery lobby about Africans. Toussaint Louverture leading the revolt in Haiti was not the only example of such a stirring of feelings; revolts in other locations followed including Barbados in 1816, Demerara in 1822 and Jamaica in 1831. The decision to bring the practice of slavery to an end was a contentious one. In 1785 Peter Peckard, the Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University set a Latin Essay on the topic Is it Right to Make Slaves of Others Against their Will? He had moved to London and ran a printing and publishing business, which produced most of the Quaker and Abolitionist literature in the 1780s and 1790s. Clarkson was the main liaison between the committee and MPs in parliament – in particular Wilberforce – who opposed to the slave trade. This was a boycott against all sugar produced on slave plantations in the West Indies, intended to undermine the economic case for slavery. In the United Kingdom, Quakers would be foremost in the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1787 which, with some setbacks, would be responsible for forcing the end of the British slave trade in 1807 and the end of slavery throughout the British Empire by 1838. An Act of Congress was passed, prohibiting the importing of slaves into the United States. Ian, thank you for your supportive comment. John Woolman visited from Philadelphia in 1772, and re-awakened the issue. He also was strongly in favor of allowing free blacks, who, he claimed, strengthened a country. These Quaker businessmen faced the opprobrium of the powerful anti-slavery groundswell within the Quaker movement in the mid-18th Century and gradually had to withdraw either from the trade or from Quakerism. 1713-1784. Friends like Anthony Benezet and John Woolman worked tirelessly to convince other Whites to abolish slavery and embrace liberty for all. He was recaptured and put on a ship bound for Jamaica. This particular achievement of the Congress owed much to the mass mobilization of public opinion in Britain; 800 petitions were sent to the government bearing the signatures of an estimated three quarters of a million people. The rise of the Abolition movement occurred at a time of social tumult, and that was certainly no co-incidence. 1688. Barton’s efforts for the Society were cut short by his early death at the age of 34. The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) was the first corporate body in Britain and North America to fully condemn slavery as both ethically and religiously wrong in all circumstances. The second cause has been organised violence, or war: in this instance, slaves are viewed as one of the prizes for the stronger party (and victor). In the closing decades of the eighteenth century both sides of the North Atlantic world were convulsed by revolution, each inspired at a deep level by the ideal of political and legal equality. The US Civil War resulted in the destruction of slavery as an institution in the world’s most prosperous and advanced economy.

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