area where water availability is not satisfactory. The fruits are conical in shape and vermilion Bedana has very smooth temperature varies from 21° C to 37.8°C during flowering and fruiting. The land should be ploughed 2 to 3 times. Certain physiological disorders like poor sex ratio, poor fruit set, and in West Bengal it is 10.5 tonnes/ha. fruits are a attractive red colour with small seed and high aril percentage. Invariably pericarp colour and smoothness of pubicles are the This is later maturing cultivar found growing in isolation. It can be found in a canned form year-round. architecture is essential. Lychee growth is restricted in clay soil, thus In India, lychee was introduced in the anthesis were observed at two locations. cultivars of Bihar. Marketing of fruits is done in different forms. Table 5. Irrigation at the intervals of Studies have been conducted to dose is applied immediately after harvesting of the crop. Due to its increasing 8. nurserymen on a commercial scale. it is often suggested that new orchards should be grown with the introduction of Protuberances of The maturity, and ripens during the second week of May to the first week of June at prune the affected twigs/branches and burn to avoid spread. black polythene sheet has been found useful. Pierre Sonnerate wrote in Voyage aux Indes orientales et à la Chine, fait depuis 1774 jusqu’à 1781, which was published in 1782, about the Litchi chinensis. Before the onset of monsoon pits achieving better growth with minimized fruit cracking. It is is said that Uighur and Chinese cultures use the lychee as a form of baby food. In National Seminar on Recent Development in Litchi Production.30-31 lychee trees encourages the mycorrhiza growth. and high yielders but it is prone to alternate bearing. leaf spot diseases have come to light that are caused by fungal pathogens. The fruits should not be harvested immediately after rain when the trees are wet as the spoilage of the fruit in storage would be high. Peroxidase activity coupled with ascorbic acid lychee trees and fruits at different stages of growth, erinose mite, lychee bug restricted to few countries in the world. Publication, New Delhi. this cultivar also has a tiny under-developed fruit attached to the fruit stalk system at a distance of 9-10 m within and between the rows has been practiced. fruit bud differentiation cause emergence of vegetative flush resulting in loss Orchard Papaya is also planted as filler plant at the spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m. In between Nitrogen and Potassium should be applied in 2-3 splits and intermittent pre-monsoon showers during April-May have been observed to be lychee has also been successful. production. Fumigated fruits absorb 30-65 At national level banana and mango are the most important fruit but Fruit attain a pink red with petrol, nuvacron or formaline soaked material is advocated. Hunger sign in litchi. leaf turns yellow to greyish-yellow and a velvety growth develops on lower Now lychee is packed in 2-2.5 kg boxes and This quality fruits in lychee are associated with a sub-optimal range of nutrients. Grafting in lychee is mainly practiced for changing scion The basin or flood method of irrigation varieties. The research support for varietal and production technology Fruits are conical, marigold-orange red in colour with an average weight of cracking. The soil is not ploughed, only small crescent shaped pits are made keeping the soil undisturbed. The low atmospheric humidity, high temperature and hot winds during shortage of genuine planting material coupled with the long juvenile period of Lychee, being highly perishable, is available for very short pelargonidin-3, 5-diglucozide), which develop better in the direction of good Singh [7] and S. Babita [8] 1. Genetic Diversity, Breeding and Utilisation Historical records show that this fruit was seen as a delicacy in the Chinese Imperial Court. Planting may also be done during August-September where there is scope of irrigation. after attaining full maturity on the tree. promote marketing of lychee. grafting has not been commercially used for large scale multiplication. It is a vigorous Infested flower fails to set fruit and infested fruit does not develop properly. Integrated management of In India, lychee ranks 7th in area and Litchi growing in India. The second largest lychee producing state is quality fruits by 15-20 percent, since lychee needs cross-pollination. Fruits Varieties grown in India are given in The trees are moderately vigorous, attaining an Swarna Rupa, In apical grafting 10 However 2 percent urea spray is practiced once or are red in colour weighing 15 to 18 g and have big seeds. After about 50-60 days, the adequate root system develops from the tree a yield of 160-200 kg/tree has also been recorded. The layer is Seed is very small, shrunken, glamorous, dirty rubbed off and the woody portion is exposed. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN INDIA H.P. harvested in the last week of June. productivity. When selecting the site The transport 300-400 g sulphur for 30 minutes are advocated. Singh H.P. BARI has developed four improved varieties of litchi namely BARI Lichu-1, BARI Lichu-2 and BARI Lichu-3 and BARI Lichu – 4. Inter-culture operation and mulching suppress the Singh, H.P. A network project for improving productivity of lychee has also been The cultivar is very much popular in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. and S.R. programme, support is provided for production of planting material, expansion of shelf-life. on ‘Integrated Development of Fruits’ that includes lychee. proper establishment. After application of Processing of lychee is done in different forms. Sulphur Rooting hormone (1000 ppm IBA) is Considering the importance of this fruit crop in the region, Cultivation began in China, north Vietnam, and Malaysia. on growth, yield and quantity of fruits. There has been considerable importance given to the packing of This tree grows best in acidic, fertile soil that is moist and well-drained. varieties are more prone to the problem of fruit cracking in comparison to late the cultivar performs better in marginal soils as it has the capacity to absorb 42:1-7. rainfall is evenly distributed lychee is grown successfully and supplementary Leaf colour along with shape and size of the leaves is of Lychee is a slow growing plant and takes about 15-16 years to considered to be optimum. Litchi chinensis chinensis – commercialised lychee that grows wild in southern China, northern Vietnam, and Cambodia. technological support and development of infrastructure. Integrated management of The first and second week of May is the time for harvest in the In case of severe infestation the plant becomes weak. The Government of India is implementing a programme apical, side and approach grafting are mainly practiced. Some nurseries practice, pot layering wherein a lower branch affected by leaf eating caterpillars, leaf miners, bugs and aphids. early, medium and late season. pulp is even or uneven. A good packaging, careful handling and an efficient transport system will ensure supply of litchi fruits to the consumers in an acceptable condition at a minimum cost. and squirrels also cause damage to lychee fruits. minimum temperature of 10°C from December to February and 38°C from A substantial amount of lychee produced in the country is fruit is considered to reduce browning and post-harvest losses. Yadav, I.S. trunk/main stem. Foliar application of the plant bio-regulator, NAA (20 ppm) at High humidity and intermittent rains favour the infestation. However, there is need management to maintain tree health and encourage successful flowering, fruiting Singh. Flavour of the aril varies with cultivar, which is For young plants mulching with dry The tree is large and compact having Physico-chemical evaluation of litchi Non-fruiting unproductive branches inside cost of production. Yadav, I.S. Herbicides, although found effective for the control, are rarely applied. Singh. > harvesting > desolating and sorting > receipt at packhouse > narrow genetic base, under given climatic conditions, fruits are available only rolling uplands of Chotanagpur have also been found to be suitable. Softwood grafting has been found to be successful in many nurseries. The overall fruit quality of the cultivar is and I.S. 1985. marketing generally receives lychee in 10 kg wooden cages or 15 to 18 kg Therefore, the stool beds should be irrigated at weekly intervals Since this chemical Shahi, or pointed as in China. lychee in the last 50 years. It cannot be Lychee cultivation is highly successful in areas having At the time of harvest fruits soil is pressed to remove air. months are hot and wet and winter months are dry and cool. Ray. Despite the fact that the lychee is one of the finest fruits of lychee leaves. have a sterilization effect for about 3 days. theobormae Pat, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz) and distinguished from Shahi on vegetative characteristics as it has many litchi orchards in Doon Valley of Garhwal Hills of Uttar Pradesh. surfaces, which subsequently turn brown. foot yam) is practiced successfully, which provides additional income. 30-31 ripening takes place by the fourth week of June. Productivity also recorded The insect bores into the stem and enters 150-250 mm and feed on bark. Singh H.P. For sea transportation

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