2014. Blancher, and R.D. Incubation typically lasts 12 to 14 days, and fledglings leave the nest at 13 to 14 days old. 2007. Breeding behavior of Evening Grosbeaks. Summary statistics of observations by breeding status category for the Evening Grosbeak in Minnesota based on all blocks (each 5 km x 5 km) surveyed during the Breeding Bird Atlas (2009-2013). Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] decline in number of “locations”? eBird data from 2014-2018. (1977) reported that the enzyme cholinesterase is suppressed in Evening Grosbeaks in treated forests. 1999. According to the Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas, Evening Grosbeak is most abundant (1.21-14.33 birds / 25 point-count stations) in Bird Conservation Region 12 (Boreal Hardwood Transition) (Hoar 2007), a region characterized by coniferous and northern hardwood forests, nutrient-poor soils, and numerous forested wetlands (NABCI International 2014). However, it fluctuated considerably among years, with survival rates high in years with low irruptions and vice versa. Piao, B.T. Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec (MFFPQ). Among the different types of road salt used in Canada, sodium chloride and calcium chloride are the most widely used on paved roads and are known to be toxic to birds when taken in excess, because the kidney of terrestrial birds is not efficient at removing excess sodium (Bollinger et al. For example, >20 million ha of boreal forest (mainly mature and old stands) were harvested in Canada between 1975 and 2010, with an additional 6 million ha predicted to be harvested by 2020 (Wells 2011). Several studies generally agree that climate change may negatively affect the distribution and abundance of Spruce Budworm in Canada, notably in eastern provinces. 1983; Bolgiano 2004), arising from the reduced interval between forest fires and allowing for an increase of Balsam Fir abundance which in turn generated particularly severe Spruce Budworm outbreaks from 1910 onward (Bergeron and Leduc 1998). Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press. May 2016. 1996; Hobson and Bayne 2000). Xu, L., R.B. Forecasting the response of Spruce Budworm defoliation to climate change in Ontario. Survival in wintering areas is density-dependent, such that an irruption with a large number of birds exceeds the wintering region’s carrying capacities or results in more birds in “sink” regions, thereby decreasing survival rates. Sauer, J.R., J.E. The Boreal Avian Modeling Project (BAM 2014) provides a habitat model for Evening Grosbeak using data from hundreds of thousands of point counts along with climate and vegetation cover across Canada. Global Change Biology 13:1630-1643. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 1954. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online. data). Williams, D.W. and A.M. Liebhold. “Conservation Status of North American Birds in the Face of Future Climate Change.” PLoS One 10: e0135350. The distribution of Evening Grosbeak in Canada closely matches the limits of the boreal shield, boreal plain and mountain cordillera ecozones, which total more than 200 million ha of forest (Government of Canada 2013). Breeding population trends of the Evening Grosbeak in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota, 1995–2016 (Bednar et al. 2007. (2001) report that, following the breeding period, small flocks of adults with fledglings become evident in most regions of British Columbia by late July. Bolgiano (2004) provides a trend of the percent of CBCs reporting Evening Grosbeak between 1940 and 2001, and Environment Canada (2014) has conducted a trend analysis of the abundance index (effort-adjusted) for the period 1970-2012. With their enormous bills, Evening Grosbeaks can crush seeds that are too large for Common Redpolls and Pine Siskins to open. Couturier, W.E. Canadian Field-Naturalist 35:41-45. Evening Grosbeaks attracted to vehicles. Adult females and juveniles are generally greyish-brown with some yellow on the nape and flanks and black and white wings and tail. In the eastern part of the species’ range, courtship and mating occur from early April to May (Shaub 1954; Downs 1956). (2015) and the National Audubon Society (2015) in their analysis of species’ susceptibility to climate changes suggested it is “climate threatened.” The threats are similar to those for many species with a boreal breeding distribution and found in the coniferous zone of the Rocky Mountains. Differential migration in the Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus): a test of hypotheses. The nest is built on a horizontal branch or in a fork of a tree. James. In Canada, its distribution includes all Canadian provinces and territories except Nunavut. Nelson. Natural Resources Research Institute Technical Report NRRI/TR-2016/36. The increase in the Evening Grosbeak population in eastern Canada has been variably attributed to the planting of Manitoba Maples, colonization of large areas by Pin Cherry, and attraction to Spruce Budworm outbreaks in eastern Canada in the 20th century (Morris et al. [accessed October 2015]. No overall, although the population does fluctuate in association with the cycle of Spruce Budworm, and fluctuations can be extreme in some areas. Smith. 2011. Trofymow, and L.A. Venier. In the event of the extirpation of the Canadian Evening Grosbeak population, immigration of individuals from the United States is likely, considering that several bordering northwestern and northeastern states have shown a long-term increase ≥1.5 % per year since 1966 (Figure 16; Sauer et al. Green (1995) suggested that the species is conifer dependent but also has a food preference for ash (Fraxinus spp.). Evening Grosbeak contributes to the natural control of Spruce Budworm (Blais and Parks 1964; Venier et al. Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura spp.) 2008. Breeding biology of Evening Grosbeaks. Adult males have a dark brown head with a bold yellow supercilium; the brown of the head blends to a bright yellow belly and scapulars, contrasting with a short black tail and black wings with a large white patch on the secondaries. Janssen, Robert B. 2007. Davis, R.A. Bowen, and M.L. (2004) suggest the range of C.v. brooksi in Canada possibly includes most of British Columbia, southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan; in contrast, the range of C.v. vespertinus is north and east of these latter limits, extending from Yukon to the Atlantic Coast. Tucker, Z. Zhu, J. Bi, P. Ciais, H. Tømmervik, E.S. His breeding range map included its summer distribution reaching to eastern Becker County. 1984. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Bird feeders also have beneficial aspects for the species by providing supplementary food during harsh winter conditions. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2012. 2003), the Skeena River area in British Columbia (Martell 2015), Fort Liard in the Northwest Territories (Gillihan and Byers 2001), La Crète in Alberta (Federation of Alberta Naturalists 2007), Cree Lake in Saskatchewan, Opasquia Provincial Park and Moosonee in Ontario (Hoar 2007), southern Hudson Bay and the Mingan Archipelago National Park of Canada Reserve in Quebec (Atlas of the breeding birds of Quebec [ABBQ] 2014), most of the island of Newfoundland, and the Maritime provinces (BSC 2015). The outbreak is now occurring in five regions of this province but is more pronounced in the Côte-Nord (3.7 million ha) and Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (1 million ha) (MFFPQ 2015) and is now expanding into eastern Ontario and New Brunswick. Population Estimates Database, version 2013. Secondly, there might be a cost to irrupting such that an increased number of birds irrupting results in more mortalities. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 2 vols. Wells (ed.). According to a set of models developed for studying the nesting phenology of Evening Grosbeak in Canada using Project NestWatch data (BSC 2013), the general nesting period (from first egg-laying until the young have naturally left the vicinity of the nest) may start somewhere from mid-May to early June and may extend until mid-August to early September, with greater likelihood from end of May to end of August; before and after these dates the probability of an active nest is lower (Rousseu and Drolet, in prep.). McLaren, and J.C. Barlow. In Canada, Evening Grosbeak and its nests and eggs are protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994. Weckstein. Mean clutch size of Evening Grosbeak in Ontario is 3 to 4 eggs (n=5 nests; Peck and James 1987). Hertzel, Anthony X., and Robert B. Janssen. Limits of range boundaries between C.v. vespertinus and C.v. brooksi are poorly known, but based on differences in flight calls between the two subspecies, Sewall et al. Ontario Forest Bird Monitoring Program Newsletter. Analysis of Long Term Forest Bird Monitoring in National Forests of the Western Great Lakes Region. 2008. A heavyset finch of northern coniferous forests, the Evening Grosbeak adds a splash of color to winter bird feeders every few years, when large flocks depart their northern breeding grounds en masse to seek food to the south. 2000). 1998. 1990. 2004; Haiman 2011). 1996.The Christmas Bird Count Home Page.

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